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Template:Use dmy dates The history of the Mass Rapid Transit system of Singapore commences with its planning in the 1960s, leading to its opening in 1987 with the launch of the 6 km section of the North South Line from Yio Chu Kang Station to Toa Payoh Station. It now has 4 lines in operation with a total combined route length of 138 km and 88 stations. The Light Rail Transit which opened in 1999 acts as a feeder service to the MRT network.

Construction of backbone networkEdit

ConceptualisationEdit

The idea of constructing a rapid transit line in the country was initiated in 1967, when a four year State and City Planning study conducted by the Singapore government and the United Nations Development Programme. It was part of an urban renewal and development project which aimed to formulate a long-term comprehensive concept plan for guiding the country's future physical development. It was concluded that physical land constraints faced by the island nation, was not able to accommodate more roads to meet the rise in transportation demands. It was noted that the city state needed a rail transit system by 1992.[1]

Bus vs. rail debateEdit

It took 10 years since 1972 to design the MRT system, which continued all the way until the government gave permission to build the MRT. Between 1972 and 1980, the participants of the study was the late President Ong Teng Cheong. He was then a member of the Ministry of National Development's Planning Department, after returning from overseas studies that same year. He became a fervent supporter and advocate of a rail based system; being an architect and an urban planner placed him in good stead. During the study, other countries were visited to study the technology and efforts needed to build the MRT system. When he became the then-Minister for Communications (now the Ministry of Transport), he had to convince the cabinet in a debate in early 1980, that the S$ 5 billion needed for the system would be beneficial for the long-term development of Singapore. He argued that

"this is going to be the most expensive single project to be undertaken in Singapore. The last thing that we want to do is to squander away our hard-earned reserves and leave behind enormous debt for our children and our grandchildren. Now since we are sure that this is not going to be the case, we'll proceed with the MRT, and the MRT will usher in a new phase in Singapore's development and bring about a better life for all of us."

Therefore, a provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority was established in July 1980, after the debate. However, Mr Ong faced strong opposition from other members of the cabinet, by Finance Minister Goh Keng Swee, due especially to the heavy investments involved. A team of specialists from Harvard University, recommended that an all-bus system would be sufficient into the 1990s, and would cost 50% less than a rail-based system. Later on, two independent American transport and urban planning specialist teams were then appointed by the government to conduct their own independent reviews as part of the Comprehensive Traffic Study in 1981. This debate was also brought to national television in September 1980, which was rare at that time. The study came to a conclusion that an all-bus system would be inadequate as it would have to compete for road space which would have been increasingly overcrowded by then. The problem would be solved by building a rail system. Mr Ong hence declared in triumph on 28 March 1982, that

"the Government has now taken a firm decision to build the MRT. The MRT is much more than a transport investment, and must be viewed in its wider economic perspective. The boost it'll provide to long term investors' confidence, the multiplier effect and how MRT will lead to the enhancement of the intrinsic value of Singapore's real estate are spin-offs that cannot be ignored."

Construction beginsEdit

The permission to begin the construction of Singapore's then-largest public works project was given in May 1982. A ground-breaking ceremony commenced the construction on 22 October 1983 at Shan Road. The majority of the work was expected to be completed in 1992. This included 67 km of track to be constructed, with 42 stations, of which 26 would be elevated, 1 at grade and 15 underground. The network was constructed in stages, with the North South Line given priority as the line passed through the Orchard Road corridor as well as the Central Area, both of which faced a high demand for public transport. Also, it was near the more densely populated housing estates such as Toa Payoh and Ang Mo Kio. The MRT Corporation, now Land Transport Authority, was established on 14 October 1983, taking over the roles and responsibilities of the former provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority. On 6 August 1987, it set up SMRT Corporation.

Initial openingEdit

File:SMRT official opening souvenir ticket.jpg

On 7 November 1987, the first 6 kilometres of the North South Line from Yio Chu Kang to Toa Payoh went into operation. The novelty resulted in thousands flocking to the 5 station segment of the line just to experience and try out the system. At the launching of Toa Payoh Station, Mr Ong was quoted as saying that

"this is like a 20-year affair from conception to delivery. Now the baby is born, to say that I am happy and pleased is an understatement."

Nine more stations from Novena to Outram Park were officially opened 12 December 1987 by then Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong. These trains ran as a through service from one end to the other even though Tanjong Pagar and Outram Park were on the East West Line. On 12 March 1988, with the opening of six more stations from Tiong Bahru to Clementi on the East West Line, City Hall and Raffles Place become interchange stations between the two lines. On the same day, the system was officially launched by Mr Lee Kuan Yew, then Prime Minister of Singapore.

Nearing completionEdit

The rest of the system opened rapidly in stages.

Subsequent extensionsEdit

North South Line Woodlands ExtensionEdit

File:Ns9woodlands.jpg

Less than a year after the completion of the MRT project, the government announced in February 1991 their intentions to extend the system to Woodlands. Construction commenced in 1993, and the 16 km, 6 station elevated line was opened on 10 February 1996 at a total cost of S$ 1.2 billion. With this extension, the North South Line included the three stations on the former Choa Chu Kang Branch Line (Jurong East, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak and Choa Chu Kang), forming a continuous line from Jurong East to Marina Bay. The construction of the extension was not without political fallout. For a long time, the politicians representing residences in the North-East area of the island had been calling for the construction of a planned North East Line. The announcement of the Woodlands Extension led to protests especially from opposition members of parliament, in particular from Chiam See Tong and Low Thia Khiang, representatives of Potong Pasir and Hougang constituencies respectively, with both areas potentially benefiting from such a line. The opposition members accused the government of favouring the Woodlands Extension over the North East Line due to opposition representation in the north-east area, arguing that there were far more residents in the north-east compared to the north, and questioned the rationale of building the Woodlands extension when the north was relatively undeveloped. Woodlands New Town was only half completed, and Sembawang New Town was still in the planning stage at that time. More than a decade later, however, when the disputes with Malaysia over the railway land used by KTM escalated, it came to the fore that one of the criteria the Malaysian authorities had listed before they would consider shifting the existing railway station away from Tanjong Pagar was for the MRT system to be introduced to Woodlands. On 16 October 2003, in response to a question fielded in parliament, Professor S. Jayakumar, then Minister for Foreign Affairs, mentioned, that the Points of Agreement concluded between the two sides on 27 November 1990 included a clause stating that KTM will shift the station to a site adjacent or close to the Woodlands MRT Station within five years from the day the MRT to Woodlands is opened, something the KTM has not yet done. Considering that the Points of Agreement was made in the year 1990, and followed quickly by an announcement to build the MRT line a year later in 1991, there is a possibility that the line was given priority over the North East Line due more to international and local political concerns than economic considerations alone.

Expo StationEdit

The Expo Station opened on 10 January 2001, sporting a "space age" architecture designed by world renowned architect Sir Norman Foster. The roof is clad in titanium and its design enabled the platform to be free of any columns, freeing up space in a station which will be used by thousands of visitors to the massive 100,000 square metre Singapore Expo next door.

Dover StationEdit

The Dover Station, built on the East West Line between the Clementi and the Buona Vista, was opened on 18 October 2001. The first station to be built over an operating rail line with no disruptions to train services (although trains drove by the site at a reduced speed during the construction phase), it was also the first elevated station with two side platforms on either side of the tracks, as opposed to having an island platform as in all other elevated stations. Adjacent to the Singapore Polytechnic on one side, and undeveloped land on the other, the building of the station was met with reservations by some members of the public over its low catchment area. There were criticisms over the spending of "taxpayers' money" chiefly for use only by students of one educational institution. The government proceeded with the construction anyway, citing the catchment area extends to public housing flats on either end of the polytechnic, and that the undeveloped land opposite is slated for extensive development, largely residential in nature. This station has indeed brought much convenience to the students at the polytechnic.

Changi Airport StationEdit

For a long time following its opening in 1981, Singapore Changi Airport relied on taxis and buses as the primary means of public transportation to the rest of the country. They served the airport well, but concerns over competition from other regional airports, some of which feature quick rail-based services to their city centres, such as the one from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, accelerated the government's plan to build a rail link to the airport. Provision had long been made for a new line branching off from the existing East West MRT Line at the Tanah Merah MRT Station, with some conceptual plans showing a tentative route alignment to the airport along Airport Boulevard, continuing beyond the airport to Changi point, before turning southwest back toward the city along the east coast of the island. When the extension to the airport was finally announced, however, the route alignment showed a deviation from previous plans. The final plan involved building only the first two stations, namely Expo, an elevated station directly adjacent to the Singapore Expo, and Changi Airport, an underground station built between Terminal Two and the since constructed Terminal Three. The alignment of the station at the airport was switched perpendicularly to an East-west direction, such that stairs and escalators lead to two of the terminals directly from either end of the station. Changi Airport Station was opened on 8 February 2002, giving the airport its first rail link after less than 21 years of operations. Initially through services were operated from the airport to Boon Lay at the other end of the East West line, however due to ridership falling below expectations the service was reverted to shuttle mode in 2003.

North East LineEdit

File:Chinatown NEL Station, Entrance, Dec 05.JPG

The North East Line, the first line operated by SBS Transit and among the first fully-automated heavy rail lines in the world, opened on 20 June 2003. System problems delayed the line six months from the scheduled opening date of December 2002. The construction period of the North East line was fraught with many delays and some budget problems. It marked the pinnacle of a long and chequered history of over two decades since the conception of the line had taken place along with that of the original system which was eventually completed in 1990. As of May 2005, the line was still running at a deficit, and the line operator, SBS Transit, turns an overall profit because the profits from its public bus service exceed the losses from operation of the North East line. Running from HarbourFront where Singapore's former World Trade Centre building lies to Punggol to the northeast of the island, this line allowed for previously isolated or distanced areas to be linked up with the rest of Singapore by rail. The trains on the North East line are driverless and fully automated.

East West Line Boon Lay ExtensionEdit

On 28 February 2009, the 3.8 kilometre Boon Lay Extension to the East West Line comprising 2 stations Pioneer and Joo Koon commenced passenger service.

Circle LineEdit

On 28 May 2009, the 5.6 km of the Circle Line has been opened from Bartley MRT Station to Marymount MRT Station. On 17 April 2010, the other 11.1 km of the Circle Line (from Bartley to Dhoby Ghaut) commenced operation.

History of the system mapEdit

1987 to 1996Edit

File:Singapore old mrt map.png

The MRT was a very recent addition for Singapore and as such, the authorities wanted to keep the MRT map as easy to use for Singaporeans as possible. Hence, each direction of travel was colour coded in a different colour as though it were a line on its own. In that way, confusion in decision-making when taking a certain line in a certain direction would be reduced for passengers. However, this reduced the amount of colours available for new lines and was not in line with international practice. Previously, each direction of travel on the MRT was denoted on system maps as a different colour.

  • Northbound services were denoted in yellow
  • Southbound services in red
  • Eastbound services in green
  • Westbound services in blue
  • Northbound Choa Chu Kang Branch Line services in khaki
  • Southbound Choa Chu Kang Branch Line services in brown

Each station was also assigned a unique alphanumeric code, with the alphabet indicating which part of the island the station lies at (North, East, West, Central, Marina Bay region or Choa Chu Kang Branch Line) & the numbers (in ascending order from the centre of the island) indicating which part of that region the station is located at.

  • Stations from Bugis to Pasir Ris denoted by codes E1 to E12
  • Stations from Tanjong Pagar to Boon Lay denoted by codes W1 to W12
  • City Hall Station, Raffles Place Station & Marina Bay Station denoted as C2, C1 & M1 respectively
  • Stations from Dhoby Ghaut to Yishun denoted by codes N1 to N12
  • Stations from Bukit Batok to Choa Chu Kang denoted by codes B1 to B3

1996 to 30 July 2001Edit

The colour and alphanumeric codes for each direction of travel remained unchanged, except that with the opening of the Woodlands Extension (connecting Yishun station to Choa Chu Kang station), the Jurong East – Choa Chu Kang Branch Line ceased to exist. As such, the formerly Northbound Choa Chu Kang Branch Line services in orange travelled southbound to Marina Bay & as such were denoted as red while the formerly Southbound Choa Chu Kang Branch Line services in brown originated from Marina Bay, hence having travelled northbound it was denoted as yellow. The alphanumeric codes for these stations were also replaced. Expo station which opened in 2001, was denoted by the code E13 for a short while. The Bukit Panjang LRT opened in 1999 and was given the colors purple and orange to represent its direction of travel. Due to the alignment of the route, which was a loop track around Bukit Panjang New Town, the map was different. The stations were given the alphanumeric code A1 to A14, with numbering starting from Choa Chu Kang interchange and going anti-clockwise direction on the loop. The directional arrow on the shared service track (between stations A1 to A6) was split, half purple coloured and half orange coloured. From Bukit Panjang station, the orange arrows travelled in an anti-clockwise direction [(service B) via Petir] while the purple arrows travelled in a clockwise direction [(service A) via Senja]

31 July 2001 to dateEdit

File:MRT System Map 2010.png

Because of an expanding rail network, the MRT System Map could no longer afford to have each direction of travel represented by a different colour. Eventually, the map would run out of colours to use to represent each direction of travel. This was the main reason behind the revamp. Using the acclaimed London Underground Map as a reference, the MRT System Map was revamped. Colours were used to represent each line rather than each direction of travel, cutting the usage of colours by half and preserving other colours for future lines.

The direction of travel was instead represented by numbers contained within a coloured circle located at the ends of each line, known as the destination number.

Services towards Tanah Merah are not given a number. This is because when this system map was implemented, it was planned for through services to Changi Airport from Boon Lay and vice versa. Though shuttle services replaced it in 2003 due to low ridership of this service, it was decided that this system was preserved. Like before, each station was assigned a unique alphanumeric symbol. However under this revamped system map, the letter in each symbol denotes the line (rather than the region of Singapore the station was in) and the number increases in ascending order from East to West (East West Line), North to South (North South Line), towards the North East (North East Line) & in an anti clockwise direction (Circle Line & Downtown Line). Interchange stations will then have at least two codes. For example, City Hall will have two codes, EW13 for the East West Line section and NS25 for the North South Line section.

History of station and train announcementsEdit

The on-board announcement system in every single SMRT train was introduced in 1994.[2] Over time, however, sections of announcements were modified, and finally, the entire announcement system was changed in January 2008. The new announcement system features a new voice, and a new chime before each announcement.

1987 to 2008Edit

From 1987 to 1994, there were no on-board announcements. Drivers had to make announcements themselves, especially when approaching stations. However, the buzzer played before train doors close was already in existence around that time. From 1994 to 2008, the announcement system was very simple and featured to-the-point announcements. This is an example of a train's announcements between two stations. (Chime Plays) Doors closing. (Buzzer sounds, doors close, and train departs) (Chime Plays) Next Stop, Yio Chu Kang. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Yio Chu Kang. (Pause) Yio Chu Kang. At interchange stations, there would be a suffix "Interchange" after the announcement of the station's name, and information on what trains to change to. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) City Hall Interchange. Passengers going towards Bugis, Tanah Merah, or Pasir Ris, please cross the platform and transfer to another train. City Hall Interchange. At Jurong East station, because the North South Line ended in the middle platform, the announcement would announce the destinations a passenger might go to for either side the doors would open on, if on the North South Line. In 2002, the two-tone chime on the older trains was changed to the one that was used on the new C751B MRT trains. In 2003, after the opening of the North East Line, Dhoby Ghaut and Outram Park became interchanges, and the announcement was along the lines of: (Chime Plays) Next stop, Outram Park Interchange. Passengers going towards Harbourfront or Punggol, please alight at the next stop. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Outram Park Interchange. Passengers going towards Harbourfront or Punggol, please alight and transfer to the North East Line. In 2007, an additional "Please mind the platform gap" announcement was made after the station's name was announced for the second time, much similar to the announcements made in SBS Transit's North East Line trains do. The announcements were done by Juanita Melson. [1]

2008 to dateEdit

In March 2008, the announcement system was revamped, and the voice making the announcement was also changed. The ding-dong two-tone chime was also changed to a deeper, longer, lower-pitched two-tone chime. The announcements were all changed, but somewhat followed the old system very closely. (Chime Plays) Doors are closing. (Buzzer sounds, door closes and train departs) (Chime Plays) Next Station, Dover. (Ordinary stations without irregular interchanging functions only) (Chime Plays) Next Station, Dhoby Ghaut interchange. (Pause) Passengers who are continuing their journey on the Circle Line or North East Line , please alight at the next station. (Irregular interchanges only) (Chime Plays) If you see any suspicious-looking persons or articles, please inform our staff or press the emergency communication button at the side of the train doors.如果您发现有任何形迹可疑的人物或任何遗留在车厢的可疑物品,请通知我们的职员或按车门旁边的紧急联络钮与我们通话。(The Chinese Version)(The Malay Version)(The Tamil Version) (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Dover. (Pause) Dover. (Elevated stations only) (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Nicoll Highway. (Pause) Nicoll Highway. Please mind the platform gap. (Underground stations only) At interchange stations, however, the 'change to another train' announcement is completely different from the old announcement system. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Jurong East Interchange. This train service terminates at this station, Passengers who are continuing their journey towards the city, Pasir Ris Or Changi Airport, please proceed to Platform A on the left. Passengers who are continuing their journey towards Joo Koon, please proceed to Platform B on the right. (Pause) Jurong East Interchange. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Jurong East Interchange. Passengers who are continuing their journey towards Woodlands or Ang Mo Kio, please proceed to the middle platform. (Pause) Jurong East interchange. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Raffles Place Interchange. Passengers who are continuing their journey towards Orchard, Yishun or Woodlands, please proceed to Platform B. Raffles Place Interchange. Please mind the platform gap. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Dhoby Ghaut Interchange. Passengers who are continuing their journey on the Circle Line or North East Line, please alight. (Pause) Dhoby Ghaut Interchange. Please mind the platform gap. (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Joo Koon. This train terminates its service at this station. All passengers please alight. Thank you for travelling with SMRT. (Pause) Joo Koon. SMRT Lunchtime Xpress (When Approaching Station, Chime Plays) Aljunied. (Pause) This train service terminates at this station, All passengers please alight. Passengers who are continuing their journey towards Pasir Ris or Changi Airport, please board the next train. (Pause) Aljunied. (For EWX) (When Approacing Station, Chime Plays) Ang Mo Kio. (Pause) This train service terminates at this station, All passengers please alight. Passengers who are continuing their journey towards Woodlands or Jurong East Interchange, Please board the next train. (Pause) Ang Mo Kio. (for NSX) (When Departing Station, Chime Plays) Next Station, Bugis. This Train Service Terminates At Outram Park Interchange. Normal Departure (When Departing Station, Chime Plays) Next Station, Lavender. The current announcement is done by Miss Chan Hui Yuh on 22 March 2008.

20 June 2003 to date (for North East Line only)Edit

Doors closing. (Buzzer sounds, door closes and train departs) (Chime Plays) Next Station, HarbourFront. All passengers please alight at this station. Thank you for travelling with SBS Transit. (When Apporaching Station, Chime Plays) HarbourFront Station. 港湾(The Chinese Version) Please mind the gap. 请小心空隙(The Chinese Version) Berhati-hati di ruang platform (The Malay Version) and (Tamil Version) Thank you for travelling with SBSTransit. Have a nice day. At interchange stations, the information only announces one time only and the approaching station announcement is similliar to the one that is above. (Chime Plays) Next Station, Dhoby Ghaut Interchange. Passengers may alight and change to the North South Line or Circle Line. (When Apporaching Station, Chime Plays) Dhoby Ghaut Station. 多美歌 (The Chinese Version) Please mind the gap. 请小心空隙(The Chinese Version) Berhati-hati di ruang platform (The Malay Version) and (Tamil Version)

30 May 2009 to date (Circle Line Only)Edit

After the opening of Circle Line, Miss Chan made the similar announcements on the irregular interchanges as the previous version: (When approaching Station, Chime Plays) Dhoby Ghaut Interchange. This train service terminates at this station. Passengers who are continuing their journey, please proceed to the North South Line or North East Line. Thank you for travelling with SMRT. (Pause) Dhoby Ghaut Interchange. Please mind the platform gap. For Normal Departure Doors are closing(Buzzer sounds, train departs station.) (When departing station, Chime plays)Please do not lean on the train doors. Next Station, Esplanade. (When arriving station, Chime Plays)Esplanade, Esplanade. Please mind the platform gap.

History of the ticketing systemEdit

1987 to 2002Edit

File:SMRT official opening ticket.jpg

When the MRT opened in 1987, fares ranged from S$0.50 to S$1.10 in S$0.10 increments for all adult tickets, regardless of whether they were single-trip or stored-value tickets.[3] Several discounted fares were available: senior citizens and permanent residents above the age of 60 could travel on a flat fare of S$0.50 during off-peak hours; children below the height of 1.2 metres and full-time students in primary, secondary, pre-university and vocational training (VITB) institutions paid a flat fare of S$0.30 at all times.[4] Magnetic strip plastic tickets were used, in various forms. Stored-value tickets were called farecards and came in three types: the blue farecard was issued to adults, the magenta farecard to senior citizens, and the red farecard to children.[4] Single-trip forms of these tickets were retained at the faregates on exiting the paid area of a destination station.[5] Monthly discounted tickets were available in four values: beige, pink, and purple tickets for primary and tertiary students, and full-time national servicemen came with a value of S$13, S$30 and S$36, respectively;[6] the peach ticket was for secondary, pre-university and VITB students, costing S$17 each. These discounted tickets were valid for a month from the date of purchase, allowed up to four trips a day, and were non-transferable.[6]

2002 to 2009Edit

Main articles: EZ-Link
File:EZ-Link.jpg

The EZ-Link card is a contactless smartcard, initially based on Sony's FeliCa smartcard technology.[7] The cards are mainly used for the payment of transportation fares, but may also be used for payment at selected retail outlets. Established in 2002, the technology was promoted as the means for speedier and more convenient transactions[8] and as well as being an efficient method of reducing fare evasion, although there have been some cases of overcharging users.[9] As a benchmark, fares range from S$0.70 to S$3.20 for adults, S$0.70 to S$1.35 for senior citizens, and S$0.40 to S$0.50 for student EZ-Link cards. Patrons using an EZ-Link card receive a discount for their journey, including a discount if they use a connecting bus after their MRT ride.[10] The General Ticketing Machines (GTMs) at each station which replaced the older ticketing machines, allow commuters to purchase additional credit to add to their EZ-Link cards or to purchase tickets for single trips. Fares for these single trip tickets are higher than those for EZ-Link cards. In addition, a S$1.00 refundable ticket deposit is charged for each Standard Ticket. This refund can be collected from any General Ticketing Machine so as long as the card is returned to the machine within 30 days of purchase.[11] The card can also be deposited into a charity collection box, with the S$1 deposit going to charity. The rationale behind such a refundable deposit feature was that the smartcard technology contained within each Standard Ticket makes each one costly enough to necessitate the recycling of Standard Tickets. Since November 2007, external readers were installed on GTMs at stations operated by SMRT Corporation to address problems of card jamming in insert slots. The slots, however, remain in use for the purpose of refunding Standard Ticket deposits.[12] Concession fares are available for children, students, senior citizens and national servicemen. Students are given free personalised cards, complete with their photos, names and national identification numbers. Regardless of its type, each card is assigned a unique card ID that can be used to recover the card if lost. Transport operators have organised lotteries that are based on these card IDs. The Singapore Tourist Pass offers unlimited travel for tourists on Singapore's public transport system. For S$8 a day, tourists can take any number of rides on buses and trains operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses and SMRT Trains.[13] The old EZ-Link card can be used up to September 2009 where the old EZ-Link card usage would be discontinued.

2009 to dateEdit

Main articles: CEPAS
File:New Cepas Card.jpg

On 26 August 2008, Land Transport Authority announced a two month trial of the new generation Contactless ePurse Application (CEPAS) card that was developed in-house.[14] It is intended to standardize the technology of cashless payment, allowing for use on public transport, Electronic Road Pricing (ERP), everyday shopping and meals. The card has replaced this generation of EZ-Link cards in 2009 and aims to encourage competition by allowing up to four CEPAS card issuers.[15] Mass replacement of the old Sony FeliCa cards to the new CEPAS cards went on at TransitLink Ticket offices and Singapore Post outlets till 7 October 2009.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. Template:Cite paper
  2. http://sgforums.com/forums/2080/topics/314020
  3. Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, pg. 8–9
  4. 4.0 4.1 Singapore MRT Limited 1987, pg. 20–22
  5. Template:Cite conference
  6. 6.0 6.1 Singapore MRT Limited 1987, pg. 23
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. Sharp 2005, pg. 113–115
  9. Template:Cite news
  10. Template:Cite news
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Template:Cite news
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. Template:Cite news
  15. Template:Cite news

External linksEdit

Template:Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

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